श्री चित्रा तिरुनाल आयुर्विज्ञान और प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान, त्रिवेंद्रम
Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum
The department of Biochemistry comprises of two wings : a) the central clinical laboratory (CCL) which carries out round the clock all the clinical biochemistry, clinical pathology, blood gas, hematology and coaglulation analyses of patients in SCTIMST , and b) research laboratories which undertake glycobiological, immunological and molecular biological investigations on mechanisms of diseases including cardiovascular and neurological disorders, diabetes and cancer. The department trains on an average 10 Ph.D students at a time.
Tissue culture laboratory, ultracentrifuge, electroblotting, ELISA reader, HPLC, digital photomicroscope, fully automated clinical biochemistry autoanalysers ( Siemens/ Dade Behring and Olympus), fully automated coagulation anlayser ( AMAX, Germany), state of the art blood gas analyser ( Radiometer, Denmark and NOVA, USA), fully automated 5 part WBC analyser, serum electrophoresis and automated urine analyzer.
Comprehensive diagnostic facility working 24 hours for clinical biochemistry, clinical pathology, hematology and blood gas investigations for SCTIMST patients. Average number of investigations per day : 2000. Daily internal quality control and monthly external quality control program in association with the world's most widely accepted QC monitoring service provider, viz. BIORAD, U.S.A.
Immune inflammatory reactions rather than dyslipidemia is increasingly recognized to cause cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in tropics. Lp(a) being an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and stroke, mechanisms of it s tissue uptake in native, desialylated or immune complex form are investigated. Tissue lectins including galectin-1 are specific for O-glycan chains in which Lp(a) is the richest among serum proteins. Role of IgA immune complexes in vascular pathology is also studied since IgA is the second most O-glycosylated serum protein and is singularly deposited in kidney during diabetes which enhances atherosclerosis risk several fold. Our results have shown that the tissue lectin galectin-1 prefers Lp(a) among lipoproteins and IgA among immunoglobulins more so in their desialylated forms that arise as a result of infections.
Monocute-Macrophage is key cell type in the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hence abnormalities in monocyte function may be one of the factors responsible for increased atherogenesis. Current studies are focused on characterization of phenotypes of peripheral blood monocytes and mechanism responsible for phenotypic changes. Further studies are also aimed at defining novel thrombotic and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and their potential utility in diagnostic indications of risk in the young subjects.
HDL, a typical cardioprotective particle, can become dysfunctional in the vessel wall . Recent studies have implicated dysfunctional HDL in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases though the underlying pathways remain poorly understood. Qualitative changes observed in HDL particles, such as reduced activity of paraoxonase-1, an antioxidant enzyme associated with HDL and modifications of apoprotein-A1 might partly be responsible for the formation of dysfunctional HDL with pro-atherogenic properties. The current studies on HDL include its structural and functional characterization, standardization of reliable techniques to measure dysfunctional HDL, the mechanisms for rendering HDL dysfunctional and identification of therapeutic approaches aiming at controlling HDL modification.
Mechanism of nitric oxide induced martix metalloproteinases in cancer cells; mode of action of plant derived/ synthetic molecules in tumor cells; regulation of drug induced autophagy; isolation, characterization of gliomasphere forming cells from Glioblastoma Multiforme; cardiac cell biology in diabetes.